Rapidsol ALGEBRA (G.N.D.U.)

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The present book provides a comprehensive treatment of the concepts and topics by giving a vast variety of examples fully solved. The entire subject matter has been arranged in a systematic, graded, simple, lucid and exhaustive manner. Each chapter begins with some definitions followed by theorems with complete proofs and solved problems. A large number of notes and remarks have been added for a better understanding of the subject.


Linear independence of row and column vectors. Row rank, Column rank of a matrix, Equivalence of column and row ranks, Nullity of matrix, Applications of matrices to a system of linear (both homogeneous and non–homogeneous) equations. Theorems on consistency of a system of linear equations. Eigen values, Eigen vectors, minimal and the characteristic equation of a matrix. Cayley Hamilton theorem and its use in finding inverse of a matrix. Quadratic Forms, quadratic form as a product of matrices. The set of quadratic forms over a field.

Congruence of quadratic forms and matrices. Congruent transformations of matrices. Elementary congruent transformations. Congruent reduction of a symmetric matrix. Matrix Congruence of skew–symmetric matrices. Reduction in the real field. Classification of real quadratic forms in variables. Definite, semi–definite and indefinite real quadratic forms. Characteristic properties of definite, semi–definite and indefinite forms.

Relations between the roots and coefficients of general polynomial equation in one variable. Transformation of equations and symmetric function of roots, Descarte’s rule of signs, Newton’s Method of divisors, Solution of cubic equations by Cardon method, solution of biquadratic equations by Descarte’s and Ferrari’s Methods.

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